The Earth is a unique planet that comprises both biotic and abiotic components. The abiotic components include soil, water, and air. The biotic components include all the living organisms such as plants, animals and microorganisms.
Fauna refers to the animals present in a particular place at a time. Example: Amazon forest fauna. The analogous term for plants is flora. These animals include a variety of organisms such as fishes, birds, reptiles, mammals and amphibians.
The faunas of the Earth are found in different places that have different temperatures and climatic conditions. Fauna meaning can also be understood if you take a look at your surroundings, you will find different types of the organism in one setting.
Since a variety of animal forms exist, the fauna can be classified for easy identification:
- The birds are classified as Avifauna.
- Fishes are known as Piscifauna.
- Undiscovered animals are named as Cryptofauna.
- Microorganisms are classified as Microfauna.
Fauna of India
- India has approximately 90,000 species of animals.
- Around 2000 species of birds inhabit India.
- There are 2546 species of fish known in India.
- India is the only country that is home to both tigers and lions.
- Ladakh, which is an extremely cold area in India, houses yak, ox, wild sheep, and wild ass.
- Birds such as peacocks, pigeons, ducks, cranes and parakeets are found in wetlands and forests of the country.
These animals adapt according to their environment. An example can be seen in the respiratory system. Insects that thrive on land have a dense array of tubes called trachea that helps them in the exchange of oxygen, whereas mammals that live on the same land have alveolar sacs and lungs for respiration.
Importance of Fauna
- Maintains Ecological Balance
The fauna is a part of the food web. Predation and scavenging maintain a balance in the ecosystem. Moreover, the animals release carbon dioxide that is taken up by plants for photosynthesis. The droppings by animals serve as natural fertilisers for plants and trees.
- Aesthetic Value
Flora and fauna of a particular place increase the beauty of the surroundings. The national parks, zoos and sanctuaries built for the protection of animals attract tourists and contribute to the economy.
Need to Save the Fauna
The fauna is, however, dying every day due to human activities and global warming. There are many species that are in the list of endangered animals and some that have already become extinct. The government has taken several steps to save the fauna and flora. They have built protected areas such as zoos, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves to protect the animals in-situ. When the tiger was in the list of endangered species, Project Tiger was launched to reduce the depletion of tiger habitats.
Visit BYJU’S Biology to learn more about plants and animals and their different habitats. Students can also learn more by watching different subject related YouTube videos by subscribing to YouTube videos.